Rato Machhendranath Temple ラトマチェンドラナート寺院(Bungamati)


パタン Patan のラトマチェンドラナート寺院 Rato Machhendranath Temple に次いで、ブンガマティ Bungamati のラトマチェンドラナート寺院を訪ねました。Machhendranathの御神体は、年の半分はパタンで、残りの半年はブンガマティで祀られます。12年に一度、お祭り Rato Machhendranath Jatra の際に、山車はパタンからブンガマティまで進んでいきます。IMNEPAL.COMの「Rato Machhendranath Jatra : Chariot Festival Nepal」の記事によると

The deity of Rato Machhendranath Rath Jatra is shared with the village of Bungamati. Bungamati is close to Patan. Every twelfth year the chariot of Rato Machhendranath Rath Jatra itself has to be taken to Bungamati. Road may be very hilly and far from smooth. Each year the deity Machhendranath spends three months in Bungamati but in these intervening years, it is carried there on a palanquin.

他の11年は輿にのせられて移動の様です。

2015年の震災はこの小さな村にも壊滅的な影響を及ぼしました。村を散策してみると、今では少し平穏を取り戻したかのように池で子供たちが遊んでいましたが、ようやく家々の再建が少し進んだ程度の様でした。

寺の入り口は比較的保たれている様ですが、そこにあったはずの、シカラ Shikara 様式の美しい寺院は跡形もなく崩れ落ち、ようやく基壇が姿を現したばかりの様でした。

小さな祠の中に祀られた Rato Machhendranath にはお参りする人が途絶えることはありませんでした。震災直後の2015年5月1日、The Kathmandu Post は「Rato Machhindranath Temple suffers complete devastation 」の記事で、この寺の崩壊と、それが12年毎に山車がやってくるお祭り Rato Machhendranath Jatra に及ぼす影響を伝えています。

  The temple of Rato Machhindranath, known as the god of harvest and rain, has been completely devastated. The temple of Bhairabnath located right before the Rato Machhindranath has also seen wreckage.
  The Saturday destructive earthquake annihilated the structures of both the temples. The Rato Machhendranath Temple located in historical city of Bungmati was an attraction for a large number of domestic and foreign tourists.
  The Rato Machchindranath Jatra or chariot festival is also known to be the longest Jatra observed in Kathmandu Valley. Local stakeholders have also expressed sorrow and confusion as to how to celebrate the chariot-procession festival in coming years with the devastation of the cultural heritage.
  Guthi Sansthan Lalitpur In-charge Rudranath Adhikari said the responsibility of security of high-value materials inside the devastated temple has been given to Nepal Police.
  Locals said that the effectiveness of the celebration of fair of Rato Machhindranath held in every 12 years has been weakened with the quake-triggered destruction of the ancient cultural heritage.

 


Rato Machhendranath Temple ラトマチェンドラナート寺院 (Patan)


カトマンズ Kathmandu ではセト Seto(白)、パタン Patan ではラト Rato(赤)の、雨の神様でもある マチェンドラナート Machhendranath (Matsyendranath) は、ヒンズー教徒にとってはシバ神、仏教徒にとっては観音菩薩(観自在菩薩)の化身です。Rato Machhendranath  は、パタンの Machhendranath Temple で年に6ヶ月ほど祀られ、4月から始まる盛大なお祭り”the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath” の際に、山車に乗って市内を練り歩き、ブンガマティ Bungamati の Machhendranath Temple に移されます。まずはパタンの方を訪れました。

Lonely Planet による Rato Machhendranath Temple の記事では、

Set inside a protective metal fence, the towering three-storey temple dates from 1673, but there has been some kind of temple on this site since at least 1408. The temple’s four ornate doorways are guarded by stone snow lions, and at ground level on the four corners of the temple plinth are yeti-like demons known as kyah.

Mounted on freestanding pillars at the front of the temple is a curious collection of metal animals in protective cages, including a peacock, Garuda, horse, buffalo, lion, elephant, fish and snake. Look up to see the richly painted roof struts of the temple, which show Avalokiteshvara standing above figures being tortured in hell.

と紹介されています。柵で囲まれ、もっと近くで見れないのが残念ですが、

確かに扉はSnow Lionに守られ、建物の彫刻は美しいものです。是非ともお祭りも見てみたいものです。詳細が ECS NEPAL の 「Rato Matsyendranath 」の記事で紹介されています。お祭りと言えば、家族や親族が集い食事などを楽しむ機会でもあり、同記事のなかでも

At every place where the chariot takes a rest, there is a celebration called a Bhujya. Newari people, renowned for their  extravagant feasts, use this auspicious occasion for organizing an informal get-together called a Nakhtya. The day before the Bhujya celebration is known as Chhwela Bu, where chhwela. a popular beef delicacy, is prepared by the Newars and enjoyed by most non-vegetarians.

との記述があります。Nakhtya (Nakhatya) で検索すると、ECS NEPAL の「A big, fat, Newari Nakhatya 」の記事の中でも、the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath が登場しています。

In olden days and as is still the case, a Nakhatya would follow any major festival in the Kathmandu valley. Anyone familiar to the generous sprinkling of festivals on the Nepali calendar will agree that this makes up for many get-togethers. Take the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath as an example. During this festival, each community in the valley has its own chhwela bu, naika luigu, bhujya and yaka bhujya rituals when the chariot reaches their locality. The ‘bhujya’ ritual of the festival is celebrated after the ‘naika luigu’ ritual; the former marks the arrival of the chariot into their neighborhood and is celebrated with family gatherings and feasts. As the chariot makes its round, the get-togethers (read: feasts) follow.

お祭りに関する食事の儀式がいろいろあるようです。