Jestha Varna Mahavihar Min Nath Temple (Min Nath Temple) ミンナート寺院 (Patan)


パタン Patan のラトマチェンドラナート寺院 Rato Machhendranath Temple のすぐ近くに、ジェスタバーナ マハビハール ミンナート寺院 Jestha Varna Mahavihar Min Nath Temple (ミンナート寺院 Min Nath Temple)が在ります。Lonely Planet による Minnath Temple の紹介は以下の文章です。

Just 200m south of I Baha Bahi, a large water tank marks the entrance to a courtyard strewn with wooden beams. In the centre is the brightly painted, two-tiered Minnath Temple, dedicated to the Bodhisattva Jatadhari Lokesvara, who is considered to be the little brother of Rato Machhendranath. The temple was founded in the Licchavi period (3rd to 9th centuries), but the multi-armed goddesses on the roof struts were added much later.

Note the metal pots and pans nailed to the temple rafters by devotees. The timbers surrounding the temple are assembled into a chariot every year to haul the statue of Minnath around town as part of the Rato Machhendranath Festival.

マチェンドラナート寺院との深い関わりがある様で、人々はマチェンドラナート寺院にお参りに行く前に、このミンナート寺院にお参りする様です。マチェンドラナート寺院とミンナート寺院の関係については、お祭り Rato Macchendranath Jatra の 山車 chariot についての説明に合わせて、The Himalayan Times の「 Readying for Rato Machhindranath Jatra」の記事で、

Many of us must have seen a small chariot near Machhindranath’s chariot. This is the chariot of Minnath — another deity. This deity is considered as Padmanityeshwor — a form of Shiva — a Hindu deity. We may have heard of the mythical relation between Minnath and Machhindranath as maternal uncle and nephew. However, Rabin Shakya, a priest at Minnath temples explains, “There is no such relation between these two deities. Machhindranath is the guest here who was brought to the country from Kamaru Kamakhya, India.”

との説明もあります。

寺院としての建築様式も、カトマンズやパタンのマチェンドラナート寺院とよく似ています。ECS NEPALの「It All Starts with the Yantra」の記事で、類似点の記載を見つけることが出来ます。

Both roof levels of the Matsyendranath Temple in Jana Bahal of Kathmandu have lovely kikkinmalas and one can observe figures of four powerful gods, Birudhaka, Dhritastra, Vaisravana and Viropaksha, at its four corners. Similar dominant figures can also be seen at some other temples such as the Min Nath Temple in Tangal, Patan, where two demonic figures stand guard at the front gate and two others at the temple entrance. This temple has copper sheeted roofs, as has the Matsyendranath Temple in Ta Bahal of Patan.

この記事は建築様式に関する詳細な記述が満載です。オーバーハングした屋根を支える Struts (Tundal トゥンダール 方丈)の彫刻について、どの位置の Strutsに何が彫られるかや、性的な彫刻の意味などにも言及しています。

One myth says that the erotic figures were carved to protect the temples from the wrath of a great puritan queen during the days of the Mahabharata War; another says that Hinduism’s most lusty god, Indra, will not let his bolt (bajra) strike places where there is something erotic (thus protecting such temples from lightning).

屋根の先端の Gajura ガジュラ(ガジュール)についての説明でも、ミンナート寺院が登場します。

 Very heavy looking gajurs adorn the Min Nath and the Matsyendranath Temples of Patan.

Gajuraから垂れ下がるPataka パタカ(Dhvaju ドバジャ)の項目でも、再度ミンナート寺院が取り上げられています。

The pataka (dhvaju) is mostly made of gold, silver or copper and the eight auspicious symbols (asta mangala: endless knot, lotus, banner, wheel, holy water jug, pair of fish, parasol and conch shell) are popularly used as its design. They are supposed to be pathways for gods to descend down to earth. The intricately designed patakas of Ratnakar Mahavihara and Min Nath Temples in Patan are very impressive.

 


Rato Machhendranath Temple ラトマチェンドラナート寺院 (Patan)


カトマンズ Kathmandu ではセト Seto(白)、パタン Patan ではラト Rato(赤)の、雨の神様でもある マチェンドラナート Machhendranath (Matsyendranath) は、ヒンズー教徒にとってはシバ神、仏教徒にとっては観音菩薩(観自在菩薩)の化身です。Rato Machhendranath  は、パタンの Machhendranath Temple で年に6ヶ月ほど祀られ、4月から始まる盛大なお祭り”the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath” の際に、山車に乗って市内を練り歩き、ブンガマティ Bungamati の Machhendranath Temple に移されます。まずはパタンの方を訪れました。

Lonely Planet による Rato Machhendranath Temple の記事では、

Set inside a protective metal fence, the towering three-storey temple dates from 1673, but there has been some kind of temple on this site since at least 1408. The temple’s four ornate doorways are guarded by stone snow lions, and at ground level on the four corners of the temple plinth are yeti-like demons known as kyah.

Mounted on freestanding pillars at the front of the temple is a curious collection of metal animals in protective cages, including a peacock, Garuda, horse, buffalo, lion, elephant, fish and snake. Look up to see the richly painted roof struts of the temple, which show Avalokiteshvara standing above figures being tortured in hell.

と紹介されています。柵で囲まれ、もっと近くで見れないのが残念ですが、

確かに扉はSnow Lionに守られ、建物の彫刻は美しいものです。是非ともお祭りも見てみたいものです。詳細が ECS NEPAL の 「Rato Matsyendranath 」の記事で紹介されています。お祭りと言えば、家族や親族が集い食事などを楽しむ機会でもあり、同記事のなかでも

At every place where the chariot takes a rest, there is a celebration called a Bhujya. Newari people, renowned for their  extravagant feasts, use this auspicious occasion for organizing an informal get-together called a Nakhtya. The day before the Bhujya celebration is known as Chhwela Bu, where chhwela. a popular beef delicacy, is prepared by the Newars and enjoyed by most non-vegetarians.

との記述があります。Nakhtya (Nakhatya) で検索すると、ECS NEPAL の「A big, fat, Newari Nakhatya 」の記事の中でも、the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath が登場しています。

In olden days and as is still the case, a Nakhatya would follow any major festival in the Kathmandu valley. Anyone familiar to the generous sprinkling of festivals on the Nepali calendar will agree that this makes up for many get-togethers. Take the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath as an example. During this festival, each community in the valley has its own chhwela bu, naika luigu, bhujya and yaka bhujya rituals when the chariot reaches their locality. The ‘bhujya’ ritual of the festival is celebrated after the ‘naika luigu’ ritual; the former marks the arrival of the chariot into their neighborhood and is celebrated with family gatherings and feasts. As the chariot makes its round, the get-togethers (read: feasts) follow.

お祭りに関する食事の儀式がいろいろあるようです。

 


Rudravarna Mahavihar ルドラヴァルナ大僧院 (Patan)


パタン Patan の散策、Mahabuddha Temple マハブッダ寺院の次は、Rudravarna Mahavihar ルドラヴァルナ大僧院を訪れました。ECS NEPAL の「Rudravarna Mahavihar A Precious Heritage 」の記事によると、Kathmandu Valley の中で、Hiranayavarna Mahavihar (the Golden Temple) に次ぐ重要な vihar 僧院の様です。

Kathmandu Valley is estimated to have more than 2,500 temples of different styles, the most prevalent being the pagoda type. Rudravarna Mahavihar is one of the most beautiful of such pagoda style temples.  According to those who know, Rudravarna Mahavihar in Okubahal, Lalitpur, is the second most important vihar in Kathmandu Valley, next only to Hiranayavarna Mahavihar, also known as the Golden Temple, in Kwabahal of Lalitpur. The two mahavihars share many similarities, both being three-roofed pagoda-style temples housing huge statues of Shakyamuni Buddha. However, there are differences as well. There are more devotional activities in Hiranayavarna Mahavihar than in Rudravarna Mahavihar, and the former certainly has a livelier environment, especuially in the early hours of the morning, when many devotees come to pray and worship. On the other hand, Rudravarna Mahavihar is said to be the best-maintained vihar in the valley, and is spic-and-span at all hours. Anyway, however one looks at it, it is a fantastic example of Newari Buddhist culture, artchitecture, and art. 

神仏が彫られたトーラナ Torana です。確かに the Golden Temple よりも参拝者が少なく静かな境内は、ゆっくりとした時間が流れています。

 ECS NEPAL の「Alleys Full of Art」の記事によると an idol of ‘Kwapadhya’, the Shakyamuni Buddhaが祀られ、その赤い顔が特徴とありましたが、ガラスの向こうで、しっかりと拝見することが出来ませんでした。

Located a mere 500 meters from the Patan Durbar Square, it is one of the oldest monasteries of Patan. It was built in the 6th century AD by the Licchavi king, Shiva Deva. In the past, the monastery also had a community of artisans that were specifically settled nearby to promote the growth of the various forms of art. The monastery has two courtyards, the larger of which is filled with stone and metal statues. The main shrine, which is three-stories high, houses an idol of ‘Kwapadhya’, the Shakyamuni Buddha. This statue is unique for its red face, which adds to the aura created by its intricate ornaments and the skillful metalwork surrounding it.


Honacha ホナチャ (Patan)


ネパール滞在3日目の昼食は、カジャ Khaja を頂きに、パタン Patan のダルバール広場 Durbar Square 近くの、「ホナチャ Honacha 」さんに伺いました。

入口近くで調理が行われ、奥にテーブルが並んでいます。お客さんの殆どが地元の人の様です。まずはバフチョイラ Buff Chowela (Chhoila) や、ブトン Bhuttan をお願いし、チウラ Chiura と一緒に頂きます。このお店名物の ピロアル― Piro Aalu を口にすると、まずじゃが芋の甘さを感じ、暫くすると辛味が広がり残る一品です。そのうちに、お願いしたウォー Wo (バラ Bara)も焼きあがってきます。全部頂いていくと、結構、食べ応えのある量です。バラの横で焼かれていたティシャ Tisya は円筒状の脊髄を切ったものです。初めて頂きました。他のお客さんが頼まれていたものに、サフーミチャ Safu Micha(サプーミチャ Sapoo Mhicha) がありました。胃の一部ハチノスなどを袋状にして、骨髄を詰めて包んだものです。ミンチにした肉を焼くだけのものも美味しそうでした。Honochaさんは2店あるようで、theDundruk.com の Best Newari Eateries in Patan の記事の中で紹介されています。今回伺ったのは、Bhimsen Mandirの方です。

1. Honacha, Krishna Mandir

Honacha, located just behind the Krishna Mandir in Patan Durbar Square, is the oldest and most popular hole-in-the-wall for Newari foods, and is equally loved by both locals and visitors. It has limited Newari food items unlike other Newari eateries and very popular for chhoila (spicy barbecue meat salad), piro aalu (spicy potato curry) and wo (lentil cake commonly known as bara).

2. Honacha II, Bhimsen Mandir

This Honacha is the other eatery located beside the Bhimsen Mandir just near the Krishna Mandir in Patan Durbar Square. Newari foods they serve are comparable to first Honacha, if not better. They have a cozy space and are usually packed during the weekend. The family members currently operating the restaurant are the 5th-6th generations and has been serving Newari foods continuously.


パタン Patan 世界遺産 Kathmandu Valley


8月のネパールはまだ雨期で、今回の旅行中にも、豪雨でインド、ネパール、バングラデシュなどで災害が発生とのニュースが流れていました。夜中に雨音が聞こえるくらいの土砂降りがあり、午前中まで続き、午後は雨が上がる日々となりました。

スワヤンブナートSwayambunathからパタンPatanに向かう頃から、雲行きが怪しくなり、パタン到着後は本降りとなりました。駆け足でのパタン巡りとなりました。

まずはダルバール広場Darbar Squareから散策ですが、震災の爪痕は大きく、各所で修復作業中でした。手前の広場の入口にある、8角形の石造りで堅牢なクリシュナ寺院Krishna Mandirは原型を留めています。奥に進んだ場所のクリシュナ寺院(シッカーラ)Krishna Mandirは修復中でした。一番奥のビムセン寺院Bhimsen Mandirも大丈夫そうでした。クンべシュワール寺院 Kumbeshwar Temple辺りまで行った所で、本当の土砂降りになってしまいました。路地は川のような水流で、靴下までずぶ濡れです。

30年前も訪れており、ダルバール広場の写真を撮っていました。