Rato Machhendranath Temple ラトマチェンドラナート寺院(Bungamati)

パタン Patan のラトマチェンドラナート寺院 Rato Machhendranath Temple に次いで、ブンガマティ Bungamati のラトマチェンドラナート寺院を訪ねました。Machhendranathの御神体は、年の半分はパタンで、残りの半年はブンガマティで祀られます。12年に一度、お祭り Rato Machhendranath Jatra の際に、山車はパタンからブンガマティまで進んでいきます。IMNEPAL.COMの「Rato Machhendranath Jatra : Chariot Festival Nepal」の記事によると

The deity of Rato Machhendranath Rath Jatra is shared with the village of Bungamati. Bungamati is close to Patan. Every twelfth year the chariot of Rato Machhendranath Rath Jatra itself has to be taken to Bungamati. Road may be very hilly and far from smooth. Each year the deity Machhendranath spends three months in Bungamati but in these intervening years, it is carried there on a palanquin.



寺の入り口は比較的保たれている様ですが、そこにあったはずの、シカラ Shikara 様式の美しい寺院は跡形もなく崩れ落ち、ようやく基壇が姿を現したばかりの様でした。

小さな祠の中に祀られた Rato Machhendranath にはお参りする人が途絶えることはありませんでした。震災直後の2015年5月1日、The Kathmandu Post は「Rato Machhindranath Temple suffers complete devastation 」の記事で、この寺の崩壊と、それが12年毎に山車がやってくるお祭り Rato Machhendranath Jatra に及ぼす影響を伝えています。

  The temple of Rato Machhindranath, known as the god of harvest and rain, has been completely devastated. The temple of Bhairabnath located right before the Rato Machhindranath has also seen wreckage.
  The Saturday destructive earthquake annihilated the structures of both the temples. The Rato Machhendranath Temple located in historical city of Bungmati was an attraction for a large number of domestic and foreign tourists.
  The Rato Machchindranath Jatra or chariot festival is also known to be the longest Jatra observed in Kathmandu Valley. Local stakeholders have also expressed sorrow and confusion as to how to celebrate the chariot-procession festival in coming years with the devastation of the cultural heritage.
  Guthi Sansthan Lalitpur In-charge Rudranath Adhikari said the responsibility of security of high-value materials inside the devastated temple has been given to Nepal Police.
  Locals said that the effectiveness of the celebration of fair of Rato Machhindranath held in every 12 years has been weakened with the quake-triggered destruction of the ancient cultural heritage.


Jestha Varna Mahavihar Min Nath Temple (Min Nath Temple) ミンナート寺院 (Patan)

パタン Patan のラトマチェンドラナート寺院 Rato Machhendranath Temple のすぐ近くに、ジェスタバーナ マハビハール ミンナート寺院 Jestha Varna Mahavihar Min Nath Temple (ミンナート寺院 Min Nath Temple)が在ります。Lonely Planet による Minnath Temple の紹介は以下の文章です。

Just 200m south of I Baha Bahi, a large water tank marks the entrance to a courtyard strewn with wooden beams. In the centre is the brightly painted, two-tiered Minnath Temple, dedicated to the Bodhisattva Jatadhari Lokesvara, who is considered to be the little brother of Rato Machhendranath. The temple was founded in the Licchavi period (3rd to 9th centuries), but the multi-armed goddesses on the roof struts were added much later.

Note the metal pots and pans nailed to the temple rafters by devotees. The timbers surrounding the temple are assembled into a chariot every year to haul the statue of Minnath around town as part of the Rato Machhendranath Festival.

マチェンドラナート寺院との深い関わりがある様で、人々はマチェンドラナート寺院にお参りに行く前に、このミンナート寺院にお参りする様です。マチェンドラナート寺院とミンナート寺院の関係については、お祭り Rato Macchendranath Jatra の 山車 chariot についての説明に合わせて、The Himalayan Times の「 Readying for Rato Machhindranath Jatra」の記事で、

Many of us must have seen a small chariot near Machhindranath’s chariot. This is the chariot of Minnath — another deity. This deity is considered as Padmanityeshwor — a form of Shiva — a Hindu deity. We may have heard of the mythical relation between Minnath and Machhindranath as maternal uncle and nephew. However, Rabin Shakya, a priest at Minnath temples explains, “There is no such relation between these two deities. Machhindranath is the guest here who was brought to the country from Kamaru Kamakhya, India.”


寺院としての建築様式も、カトマンズやパタンのマチェンドラナート寺院とよく似ています。ECS NEPALの「It All Starts with the Yantra」の記事で、類似点の記載を見つけることが出来ます。

Both roof levels of the Matsyendranath Temple in Jana Bahal of Kathmandu have lovely kikkinmalas and one can observe figures of four powerful gods, Birudhaka, Dhritastra, Vaisravana and Viropaksha, at its four corners. Similar dominant figures can also be seen at some other temples such as the Min Nath Temple in Tangal, Patan, where two demonic figures stand guard at the front gate and two others at the temple entrance. This temple has copper sheeted roofs, as has the Matsyendranath Temple in Ta Bahal of Patan.

この記事は建築様式に関する詳細な記述が満載です。オーバーハングした屋根を支える Struts (Tundal トゥンダール 方丈)の彫刻について、どの位置の Strutsに何が彫られるかや、性的な彫刻の意味などにも言及しています。

One myth says that the erotic figures were carved to protect the temples from the wrath of a great puritan queen during the days of the Mahabharata War; another says that Hinduism’s most lusty god, Indra, will not let his bolt (bajra) strike places where there is something erotic (thus protecting such temples from lightning).

屋根の先端の Gajura ガジュラ(ガジュール)についての説明でも、ミンナート寺院が登場します。

 Very heavy looking gajurs adorn the Min Nath and the Matsyendranath Temples of Patan.

Gajuraから垂れ下がるPataka パタカ(Dhvaju ドバジャ)の項目でも、再度ミンナート寺院が取り上げられています。

The pataka (dhvaju) is mostly made of gold, silver or copper and the eight auspicious symbols (asta mangala: endless knot, lotus, banner, wheel, holy water jug, pair of fish, parasol and conch shell) are popularly used as its design. They are supposed to be pathways for gods to descend down to earth. The intricately designed patakas of Ratnakar Mahavihara and Min Nath Temples in Patan are very impressive.


Rato Machhendranath Temple ラトマチェンドラナート寺院 (Patan)

カトマンズ Kathmandu ではセト Seto(白)、パタン Patan ではラト Rato(赤)の、雨の神様でもある マチェンドラナート Machhendranath (Matsyendranath) は、ヒンズー教徒にとってはシバ神、仏教徒にとっては観音菩薩(観自在菩薩)の化身です。Rato Machhendranath  は、パタンの Machhendranath Temple で年に6ヶ月ほど祀られ、4月から始まる盛大なお祭り”the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath” の際に、山車に乗って市内を練り歩き、ブンガマティ Bungamati の Machhendranath Temple に移されます。まずはパタンの方を訪れました。

Lonely Planet による Rato Machhendranath Temple の記事では、

Set inside a protective metal fence, the towering three-storey temple dates from 1673, but there has been some kind of temple on this site since at least 1408. The temple’s four ornate doorways are guarded by stone snow lions, and at ground level on the four corners of the temple plinth are yeti-like demons known as kyah.

Mounted on freestanding pillars at the front of the temple is a curious collection of metal animals in protective cages, including a peacock, Garuda, horse, buffalo, lion, elephant, fish and snake. Look up to see the richly painted roof struts of the temple, which show Avalokiteshvara standing above figures being tortured in hell.


確かに扉はSnow Lionに守られ、建物の彫刻は美しいものです。是非ともお祭りも見てみたいものです。詳細が ECS NEPAL の 「Rato Matsyendranath 」の記事で紹介されています。お祭りと言えば、家族や親族が集い食事などを楽しむ機会でもあり、同記事のなかでも

At every place where the chariot takes a rest, there is a celebration called a Bhujya. Newari people, renowned for their  extravagant feasts, use this auspicious occasion for organizing an informal get-together called a Nakhtya. The day before the Bhujya celebration is known as Chhwela Bu, where chhwela. a popular beef delicacy, is prepared by the Newars and enjoyed by most non-vegetarians.

との記述があります。Nakhtya (Nakhatya) で検索すると、ECS NEPAL の「A big, fat, Newari Nakhatya 」の記事の中でも、the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath が登場しています。

In olden days and as is still the case, a Nakhatya would follow any major festival in the Kathmandu valley. Anyone familiar to the generous sprinkling of festivals on the Nepali calendar will agree that this makes up for many get-togethers. Take the chariot festival of Rato Matsyendranath as an example. During this festival, each community in the valley has its own chhwela bu, naika luigu, bhujya and yaka bhujya rituals when the chariot reaches their locality. The ‘bhujya’ ritual of the festival is celebrated after the ‘naika luigu’ ritual; the former marks the arrival of the chariot into their neighborhood and is celebrated with family gatherings and feasts. As the chariot makes its round, the get-togethers (read: feasts) follow.



Rudravarna Mahavihar ルドラヴァルナ大僧院 (Patan)

パタン Patan の散策、Mahabuddha Temple マハブッダ寺院の次は、Rudravarna Mahavihar ルドラヴァルナ大僧院を訪れました。ECS NEPAL の「Rudravarna Mahavihar A Precious Heritage 」の記事によると、Kathmandu Valley の中で、Hiranayavarna Mahavihar (the Golden Temple) に次ぐ重要な vihar 僧院の様です。

Kathmandu Valley is estimated to have more than 2,500 temples of different styles, the most prevalent being the pagoda type. Rudravarna Mahavihar is one of the most beautiful of such pagoda style temples.  According to those who know, Rudravarna Mahavihar in Okubahal, Lalitpur, is the second most important vihar in Kathmandu Valley, next only to Hiranayavarna Mahavihar, also known as the Golden Temple, in Kwabahal of Lalitpur. The two mahavihars share many similarities, both being three-roofed pagoda-style temples housing huge statues of Shakyamuni Buddha. However, there are differences as well. There are more devotional activities in Hiranayavarna Mahavihar than in Rudravarna Mahavihar, and the former certainly has a livelier environment, especuially in the early hours of the morning, when many devotees come to pray and worship. On the other hand, Rudravarna Mahavihar is said to be the best-maintained vihar in the valley, and is spic-and-span at all hours. Anyway, however one looks at it, it is a fantastic example of Newari Buddhist culture, artchitecture, and art. 

神仏が彫られたトーラナ Torana です。確かに the Golden Temple よりも参拝者が少なく静かな境内は、ゆっくりとした時間が流れています。

 ECS NEPAL の「Alleys Full of Art」の記事によると an idol of ‘Kwapadhya’, the Shakyamuni Buddhaが祀られ、その赤い顔が特徴とありましたが、ガラスの向こうで、しっかりと拝見することが出来ませんでした。

Located a mere 500 meters from the Patan Durbar Square, it is one of the oldest monasteries of Patan. It was built in the 6th century AD by the Licchavi king, Shiva Deva. In the past, the monastery also had a community of artisans that were specifically settled nearby to promote the growth of the various forms of art. The monastery has two courtyards, the larger of which is filled with stone and metal statues. The main shrine, which is three-stories high, houses an idol of ‘Kwapadhya’, the Shakyamuni Buddha. This statue is unique for its red face, which adds to the aura created by its intricate ornaments and the skillful metalwork surrounding it.

Mahabuddha (Mahabouddha) Temple マハブッダ(マハボーダ)寺院 (Patan)

ネパール滞在3日目の午後は、少し暑いくらいのパタン Patan の街中の散策です。まずは通りから路地を入った所にある Mahabuddha (Mahabouddha) Temple マハブッダ(マハボーダ)寺院を訪れます。その通りからの入り口です。入場料を支払います。震災の影響でまだ修復中でした。ご本尊は金色です。あまり記憶にないのですが、撮った写真を見ると31年前にも訪れていました。ECS NEPAL の Alleys Full of Art の記事で、この寺院についての説明を読むことが出来ます。

A five-minute walk north of Rudravarna Mahavihar is the Mahaboudha Temple. It is probably the only Buddhist temple in Nepal to be built in the shikhara style. The temple’s outer walls, which are made from terracotta, are covered in images of the Buddha. It is because of this feature that the temple is also referred to as ‘the temple of 9000 Buddhas’. The temple’s unique style was inspired by the temples of Bodh Gaya in India. It is said that Abhayaraj, the builder of the temple, conceived the idea of Mahadboudha Temple while on pilgrimage in India.

シカラ様式で建てられたネパールで唯一の仏教寺院で、テラコッタの外壁には仏像が彫られ、その数が「the temple of 9000 Buddhas」とも言われる所以です。Abhayarajさんが、インドへの巡礼の際に Bodh Gaya ボードガヤ(ブッダガヤ)の Mahabodhi Temple マハボーディ寺院に触発されて、建立したそうです。

Honacha ホナチャ (Patan)

ネパール滞在3日目の昼食は、カジャ Khaja を頂きに、パタン Patan のダルバール広場 Durbar Square 近くの、「ホナチャ Honacha 」さんに伺いました。

入口近くで調理が行われ、奥にテーブルが並んでいます。お客さんの殆どが地元の人の様です。まずはバフチョイラ Buff Chowela (Chhoila) や、ブトン Bhuttan をお願いし、チウラ Chiura と一緒に頂きます。このお店名物の ピロアル― Piro Aalu を口にすると、まずじゃが芋の甘さを感じ、暫くすると辛味が広がり残る一品です。そのうちに、お願いしたウォー Wo (バラ Bara)も焼きあがってきます。全部頂いていくと、結構、食べ応えのある量です。バラの横で焼かれていたティシャ Tisya は円筒状の脊髄を切ったものです。初めて頂きました。他のお客さんが頼まれていたものに、サフーミチャ Safu Micha(サプーミチャ Sapoo Mhicha) がありました。胃の一部ハチノスなどを袋状にして、骨髄を詰めて包んだものです。ミンチにした肉を焼くだけのものも美味しそうでした。Honochaさんは2店あるようで、theDundruk.com の Best Newari Eateries in Patan の記事の中で紹介されています。今回伺ったのは、Bhimsen Mandirの方です。

1. Honacha, Krishna Mandir

Honacha, located just behind the Krishna Mandir in Patan Durbar Square, is the oldest and most popular hole-in-the-wall for Newari foods, and is equally loved by both locals and visitors. It has limited Newari food items unlike other Newari eateries and very popular for chhoila (spicy barbecue meat salad), piro aalu (spicy potato curry) and wo (lentil cake commonly known as bara).

2. Honacha II, Bhimsen Mandir

This Honacha is the other eatery located beside the Bhimsen Mandir just near the Krishna Mandir in Patan Durbar Square. Newari foods they serve are comparable to first Honacha, if not better. They have a cozy space and are usually packed during the weekend. The family members currently operating the restaurant are the 5th-6th generations and has been serving Newari foods continuously.

Budhanilkantha Temple ブダニールカンタ寺院 (Budhanilkantha)

Kathmandu カトマンズから北へ約10キロあまりに位置する、Budhanilkantha Temple  ブダニールカンタ寺院を訪れました。Nepal Tourism Board の公式Web Siteである「DISCOVER NEPAL」で、この寺院についての説明を読むことが出来ます。

Visit the holy Budhanilkantha Temple to offer prayers at one of the most-loved Vishnu temples of the valley. Observe the intricate artwork that went into the sculpting of the magnificent 5th century of image of the sleeping Vishnu almost alike in features to the Buddha. (中略)
The shrine with probably the largest stone statue of Lord Vishnu in Nepal is reclining on a bed of Nagas or serpents in the middle of a small pond. The 5-m long granite image carved out of a single rock dates back to the Lichchhavi period.


Kathesimbhu Stupa カテシンブー ストゥーパ (Kathmandu)

Thahiti Chowk タヒティチョーク の近くに、Kathesimbhu Stupa カテシンブー ストゥーパ は在ります。1650年にSwayambhu スワヤンブナートを模して造られたというストゥーパです。横にはチベット僧院の Drubgon Jangchup Choeling Monastery も有ります。

通りに戻ると、近くには Vaishya Dev、The Toothach Godを見つけることが出来、周りには歯科医院が多く並びます。

Seto Machhendranath Temple セト マチェンドラナート寺院 (Kathmandu)

アサンチョウク Asan Chowk とインドラチョウク Indra Chowk の間に、セト マチェンドラナート寺院 Seto Machhendranath Temple セト マチェンドラナート寺院は在ります。Boss Nepal の説明によると、

On the way to Indrachowk from Ason, to your right, lay an image of Buddha carved beautifully on the stone pillar in the place called Machhendra Bahal, also known as Jana Bahal. The large pagoda style temple past the gate is dedicated to the Seto (white) Machhendranath, the god of rain in the Hindu religion. The god is recognized as an aspect of Avalokiteshwar to the Buddhist and once a year, his image is carried around in a chariot throughout old Kathmandu and this festival, known as Seto Machhendranath Jatra,taking place during spring lasts for four days.

ヒンズー教では雨の神様であり、仏教徒にとっては観音菩薩でもある、白い (Seto) 神様です。日を改めて、赤い神様 Rato Machhendranath も訪ねます。

Asan アサンの市場と露店を訪ね散策 (Asan Chowk、Kathmandu)

アサンチョーク Asan Chowk 付近を散策すると、食材を扱うお店や、道端に品物を並べる露店を見て回ることが出来ます。丁度、ザクロの季節で、Anaar アナールを積んだ自転車を何台も見かけました。炒り豆の移動屋台テラガリ Thelagari にもお目にかかりました。

定番の野菜は、雨季のせいか葉物が少ない様でした。チウラ Chiura も種類が豊富です。ブジャ Bhuja も見つけました。ダル Dal も見てて飽きません。スクティ Sukuti のお店があったり、干し魚 シドラ・マチャ Sidra Macha を売る露店もあったりします。ジンブー Jimbu を扱う店も見つけ、ティンムル Timur も見つけることが出来ました。唐辛子も色々です。沙羅双樹の葉と、それで作る皿タパリ Tapari も売っています。通りを行ったり来たりして何時までも観察していたい、興味が尽きない場所です。